Electromagnetic induction

With electromagnetic induction both differences in conductivity and magnetic properties can be retrieved at multiple depths. This allows to map differences in soil texture, moisture content, organic matter, buried metal and anthropogenic disturbances.

Magnetometry

Magnetometry allows to map magnetic deviations caused by anthropogenic disturbances in high resolution. Ditches, foundations, differences in topsoil thickness and buried metal can be mapped with this technique.

Ground Penetrating Radar

GPR is suited to map in high vertical resolution the interfaces between different soil horizons or between disturbances and the surrounding soil.